2011: Integrating Psych Throughout the Curriculum: the Why, the What, the How
Linda Jean Etchill-Ewald, MS, PMHCNS-BC; Patricia M. King, PhD, RN-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: The Sentara College of Health Sciences has taken a new approach to the education of nurses in the area of mental health by integrating Psychiatric/Mental Health (PMH) nursing throughout the curriculum to facilitate the education of nurses in this domain. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Nursing education has traditionally treated the subject of PMH nursing as a compartmentalized segment of the whole of client needs and issues. Also, PMH clinical facilities and educators are a specialized and limited resource. DESCRIPTION: Didactic content and clinical experience is spread over multiple semesters to make use of less clinical space, and fewer specialized faculty. This approach to PMH nursing education allows the learner time to process the content learned and interface with the mental health client over many months rather than weeks. The student is also given time within the context of their medical surgical experiences to build connections to the needs of all clients and their families. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Survey data from faculty and students regarding the change in curriculum has been overwhelmingly positive. NCLEX results in the area of psychosocial concepts have improved over previous results.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: There is dialog between all nursing education faculty and their students who are exposed to mental health content spanning four semesters. Psychosocial nursing diagnosis is explored on all units with all clients. As a result, communication is strengthened between students, faculty, clients and families struggling with a myriad of mental health issues and concerns. IMPLICATIONS: This educational approach transforms the healthcare environment by preparing nurses with an integrated educational model.

 


 
 

2012: Integrating Psychotherapy and Medication Prescribing in Advanced Practice
Susan Dawson, EdD, PMHCNS/NP-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: To address the issue of psychotherapy vs. psychopharmacology in advanced practice preparation and daily work. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: The fate of integrated treatment: whatever happened to the biopsychosocial psychiatrist? American Journal of Psychiatry, 2001 Fewer Integrating cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia into a psychiatric rehabilitation program: results of a three year trial. Community mental health journal, 2000 Outpatient utilization patterns of integrated and split psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for depression.1998 - Am Psychiatric Assoc. National trends in psychotherapy by office-based psychiatrists. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2008. DESCRIPTION: The Graduate Education Council indicated that keeping psychotherapy in the curriculum is essential for advanced psychiatric nursing providers. The problem is that most physician and clinical employers want only the 15-20 minute medication management use of PMHNPs. T VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: There are many approaches that can bring the skilled psychotherapist to a richer experience with troubled clients, even within the limited time frames of current practice. Skilled prescribing can be a part of the treatment process as well, and does not detract from the psychotherapy .  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: The competent advanced practice provider does not have to choose between psychotherapy and prescribing. These are both significant skills in reaching wellness with clients. Continuing to teach advanced therapy skills is essential in preparing PMHNPs to prescribe for a living. IMPLICATIONS: The limited time frames present challenges, but do not exclude psychotherapy from the skills that are needed for prescribing effectively. Instead of teaching these skills separately, integration within curriculum would be optimal for preparation of skilled providers.

 


 
 

2013: Exploring Brain-behavior Relationships to Disrupt the Cycle of Sexual Abuse
Sara Jones, PhD, APRN, PMHNP-BC

Abstract
PROBLEM: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a significant problem that has a myriad of negative effects.  FRAMEWORK: Recent studies show changes in brain functioning in victims of CSA. Though it is not the case for all, a personal history CSA is a common explanation of sexual offending behaviors. While studies have identified neurological distinctions in adult pedophiles, there have been no attempts to explore the neurobiology of adolescents who have sexually offended (ASOs).  METHODS: The purpose of this study was to explore brain-behavior relationships of sexual offending behaviors in ASOs using functional neuroimaging. Participants were interviewed to assess their history of trauma and current psychological functioning, and underwent an fMRI that assessed brain activity related to empathy and emotion regulation.  RESULTS: To date, 19 male adolescents (ages 12-17) have been enrolled, including a non-offending control group (n=10) and an ASO group (n=9). Preliminary analysis showed significantly higher scores related to symptoms of PTSD and depression in ASOs. The fMRI data showed significantly greater activity in ASOs in the left inferior frontal gyrus and fusiform during the empathy task, and significantly greater deactivation in the left inferior frontal gyrus during the emotion regulation task.  IMPLICATIONS: Neuroimaging provides a means to objectively assess and identify core neurobiological deficits specific to individuals that can be used to promote the development of interventions to address personal deficits.  FUTURE RESEARCH: Future research will utilize neuroimaging to assess the effectiveness and outcomes of current treatment for ASOs and facilitate the development of tailored interventions to prevent the cycle of CSA.

 


 
 

2014: Psychological Well-Being in a Deployed Setting
Jean Fisak, PMNCNS-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: The evidence strongly suggests that US military forces will continue to remain vulnerable to stress related injury and illness for years to come. As military members seek care outside of the military health system it is advantageous to gain insight into one of their many unique experiences-deployment. A generalized knowledge of these unique experiences may assist in improving rapport and facilitate care. The purpose of this presentation is to provide learners with a broader understanding of the potential stressors associated with the Navy Individual Agumentee Sailor in a deployed setting. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: During the surveillance period of the Navy Mobile Care Team (MCT), evaluations of the psychological health and readiness of Sailors were conducted with a focus on mental health problems, stigma, combat exposure, deployment related stressors, attitude towards leadership, sleep problems, positive effects of deployment, unit cohesion, and morale. The MCT had the capability to provide actionable medical intelligence to inform policy and facilitate real-time changes for the deployed Sailor. DESCRIPTION: Conduct focus groups and on-site surveillance. Stakeholders were unit leaders and Navy Medicine. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: The evaluation method was gathered from focus groups and a surveillance tool. The data collected by the MCT was both qualitative and quantitative.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: In the 4-years of the MCT, there were only two PMH nurses assigned. The PMH nurse brings a holistic perspective that enhanced the team's capabilities. IMPLICATIONS: The MCT model assists leaders to the understanding the unique stressors of a deployed Sailor. The concepts of the MCT provides could be duplicated into garrison care.

 


 
 

2015: Nightmares and Suicide: What is the Link?
Jane S. Mahoney, PhD, RN, PMHCNS-BC; Bethany Sphar, BSN, RN; Audrey Pyle, BSN, RN; Madalyne Smith, BSN, RN; Alyssa Allen, BSN, RN

Abstract
PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances have been linked to an increased risk for suicide. This issue led a group of nurses engaged in an evidence-based practice (EBP) project to review and critique the literature related to nightmares and suicide. They asked the EBP question: In people with psychiatric symptoms, how do nightmares influence suicidality? SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: According to multiple studies, nightmares are associated with risk for suicide even after controlling for psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms. Furthermore, nightmare frequency and duration are important factors to consider in suicide risk formulation. DESCRIPTION: The Nursing Education Council at our hospital has endorsed a sleep promotion nursing education series in the form of eLearning materials. The series includes the review and critique of the research related to nightmares as a suicide risk factor. Changes to daily practice include: 1) assessment of frequency, severity, and duration of nightmares;2) integrating the presence and frequency of nightmares as part of treatment planning; 3) recognizing first line psychopharmacologic agents for treatment of nightmares, 4) supporting non-pharmacologic therapies such as imagery rehearsal therapy and 5) advocating for addressing nightmares in a comprehensive interdisciplinary manner. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: The nurses systematically searched PubMed and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse for supporting evidence. Evidence tables were constructed. Studies were systematically critiqued for level, reliability and validity of evidence using predetermined standard EBP criteria.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: When caring for the suicidal patient, it is critical that PMH nurses recognize nightmares as a risk factor for suicide. IMPLICATIONS: Rresearch is needed to develop effective nursing interventions to reduce nightmares in suicidal patients.

 


 
 

2016: Bridging the Gap to Wellness
Amy Silbaugh, BSN, RN; Tom Huggins, RN; Barbara A. Reece, MSN, RN

Abstract
PURPOSE: The Visiting Nurse Association of Ohio Psychiatric Bridge Program (VNA PBP) was developed in response to: significant re-admissions to the county state hospital; medication non-compliance and; dearth of psychiatrists in community mental health centers. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Those treated at home experienced significantly shorter hospitalizations. Re-hospitalization is decreased, at an occurrence of 11.8% of home care patients, versus 45.9% of those without home care. In a 2011 needs assessment, the ADAMHS Board of Cuyahoga County estimates that about 44,786 adults in Cuyahoga County who are low income have been diagnosed with severe mental illness. DESCRIPTION: The VNA PBP was developed to provide in-home psychiatric care and support to patients that reside in Cuyahoga County who are discharged from the state hospital. Bridge services ensure the stability of discharged patients until the first appointment at their community mental health center (CMHC). Patients are referred to the VNA PBP for a psychiatrist and nurse visits within three days of discharge from the state hospital to begin med management and establish an individualized treatment plan. The clients are followed by the Bridge Program until they are successfully linked with their CMHC. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: • Timely initiation of care • Timely provision of service • Successful linkage to community mental health center • Decreased number of re-admissions.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: The success of the program demonstrates an increase in the number of patients seen within14 days of discharge; decrease re-admissions; and successful linkage of patients to their CMHC. IMPLICATIONS: Replication in other states will contribute to more effective means of reducing re-hospitalization rates.

 


 
 

2017: Lean Behavioral Health Nursing - Learning from a Car Company
Linda Paradiso, RN, MSN, NPP, NEA-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: Lean is the term coined to describe the Toyota Production System. It is built on the core principles of respect for people, society,customers and continuous improvement. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Lean thinking is a new way of doing business in healthcare. It provides a process for clarifying roles and preparing the necessary standard of work for the team to deliver. It eliminates wasteful overlap, cuts time from practitioners' overworked schedules and clarifies for the patient who is partnering with the team. DESCRIPTION: The series of processes are: Value as defined from the customer's perspective; the steps required to produce a product; ensuring the product flows smoothly across a value stream; each step in the stream and working toward excellence. The process for streamlining is a Rapid Improvement Event, a team based methodology which applies lean tools for seeing waste, testing solutions and making improvements. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Lean is a process improvement structure and a natural fit for healthcare. It is not the purview of quality departments but includes all employees. The first step toward establishing a lean environment is articulating and continuously communicating how each person within the organization can have an impact on change.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: The first step to improve any aspect of care is to agree on the "burning platform". This can be any threat to patient safety or waste. We decreased 1:1 observation of patients saving $500,00 the first six months of monitoring. IMPLICATIONS: Nurses are naturals for identifying burning platforms and can pull from creative reservoirs with fixes to long standing or wasteful problems.

 


 
 

2018: Minding the Space- Kindling Presence and Compassion in Clinical Practice
Maryanne J. Godbout, DNP, PMHCNS-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: This course will introduce “spaciousness” and “the pause” as fundamental concepts which lie at the core of the mindfulness experience. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Presence is emerging as a central mental state that appears to be at the heart of internal and interpersonal well-being. Being in the presence of what is occurring without reaction, judgment, and distraction ushers in the feeling of spacious non-reactivity. Dan Siegel suggests that a therapist‘s emotional self-regulation can contribute to a patient’s ability to learn to regulate his or her own emotions, and that therapists can enhance their ability to self-regulate through mindfulness practice. When the nurse is mindful, the regulatory capacity of the state is present for the interpersonal system. Mindful practice enables the person to respond (rather than react) more patiently and compassionately to others and events in the person’s life. DESCRIPTION: Course participants will use mindfulness techniques that include the body and the mind to experience exactly what mindfulness is why it works, and how to use it. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Mindfulness teaches us to become patiently and spaciously aware of what is going on in our mind and body without judgment, reaction, and distraction, thus inviting into the clinical process the inner strengths and resources that help achieve healing results.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: Mindful practice enables the nurse to respond (rather than react) more patiently and compassionately to others and events in their life. IMPLICATIONS: Inclusion of mindfulness skills training in all programs.

 


 
 

2021: Exploring the Placement and Teaching of Psychiatric Mental Health Content within Nursing Curricula
David M. Sharp, RN, MA, RPN, RGN, RNT, MSc, PhD; Diane Esposito, ARNP, PhD, PMHCNS-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: To explore where Psychiatric Mental Health (PMH) nursing is taught in the undergraduate curriculum and identify the credentials of faculty who teach that content SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Members of the APNA Undergraduate Sub-Committee have reported that the PMH content in nursing curricula is increasingly becoming marginalized by being taught for shorter periods, or in combination with other nursing fields, and not necessarily taught by subject experts. DESCRIPTION: There is potential for educational institutions to integrate PMH content within other fields of nursing that do not require faculty expertise in that topic. This could result in decreased preparation of future nurses in basic PMH nursing skills, at a time when this should be enhanced. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: This presentation will report on the results of two surveys carried out on members of the APNA Undergraduate Sub-Committee to ascertain current trends in PMH education and examine integration of PMH skills within the nursing curriculum.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: The results of two surveys will be presented. The first is a survey of the members of the APNA Undergraduate Sub-Committee identifying the location and teaching of PMH nursing content within their curriculum. The second is a survey of PMH curriculum nationwide, as reported by the academic institutions themselves, using a stratified sampling process to gather a representative sample in each state. The summarized data provides a snap shot of the current situation, and identification of best practices. IMPLICATIONS: The unique contribution of PMH nursing content to the development of basic nursing skills will be highlighted, along with the identification of future trends in PMH education.

 


 
 

2022: Enhancing Cultural Competence with Cultural Neuroscience and Ethno-Psychopharmacology: Starting an Interdisciplinary Dialogue
Jason F. Earle, PhD, PMHNP-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: Culturally competent nursing (Dayer-Berenson, 2014) places an important emphasis on clients’ cultural beliefs and practices, but a limited focus on science-based interactions between culture and biology. Research from emerging academic fields, cultural neuroscience and ethno-psychopharmacology, indicates culture can shape the neurobiological underpinnings of issues critical to psychiatric nursing. Incorporating findings from these fields could enhance the cultural component of psychiatric nursing education and, ultimately, our cultural competence when working with diverse client populations. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: A cultural neuroscience study investigating psychopathology found that individuals “(N=50,135)” from East Asian countries were significantly more likely to have a genetic predisposition (the short ‘S’ allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene) for mood and anxiety disorders compared to European Americans. However, this study also found that the collectivist cultural values dominant in East Asia buffered this population from developing mood and anxiety disorders at the same level of prevalence as populations in individualistic cultures with less genetic predisposition like the United States. Other cultural neuroscience studies have found that neural activation patterns linked to the self, cognition, and emotion vary due to cultural differences between East Asians and Europeans Americans. Ethno-psychopharmacology research has found that cultural groups respond differentially to medication due to genetic polymorphisms of CYP450 enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors. DESCRIPTION: Incorporating relevant research findings from these new fields into psychiatric nursing education and practice. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging, allelic frequency, and pharmacologic trials.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: Research from these fields could help psychiatric nursing better serve an increasingly multicultural client-base. IMPLICATIONS: Better treatment outcomes for diverse client populations.

 


 
 

2023: An Ounce of Prevention: Psychiatric Nursing's Role in Child Abuse
Amy S. Perry, BSN, RN-BC; Erin Ellington, DNP, RN, PMHNP-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: In 2012, 3.4 million allegations of child abuse and neglect were reported. From these referrals, 678,810 victims were identified, including an estimated 1,640 children who died resulting from their abuse. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: These staggering numbers represent a critical obligation to continue efforts to strengthen child abuse prevention and treatment. Ample research shows child abuse is associated with long lasting physical and mental health sequelae in children and families as well as significant societal burdens. DESCRIPTION: Psychiatric nurses practice health promotion and disease prevention at the individual, family, and community levels; nevertheless, there is a shortage of information in the literature on psychiatric nursing involvement in recognition and referral of child abuse as well as preventative efforts. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Psychiatric advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) have the additional opportunity to obtain training in evidence-based treatment modalities for child victims and their families. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a treatment program that has demonstrated effectiveness for families at high risk for child abuse or with previous history of abuse.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: Because negative patterns of parent–child interactions increase risk for child maltreatment, psychiatric APRNs’ use of a modality that enhances parents’ ability to interact favorably with their children would present opportunity for both secondary prevention (at risk families) and tertiary prevention (families with a previous incident of abuse). IMPLICATIONS: This presentation will review the current state of child abuse in the U.S., identify psychiatric nursing roles and responsibilities in recognition and intervention of child abuse, and discuss one of the few evidence-based modalities for preventing future child abuse occurrences.

 


 
 

2024: Moral Injury in Returning Veterans: Concept and Emerging Treatments
Doris C. Vallone, PhD, PMHCNS-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: Over two million service members have been deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq. Posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury have been identified as the signature mental disorders among these Veterans. Vast treatment resources have been marshaled in both the Veterans Health Administration and the Department of Defense. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Recently, clinicians working with service members postdeployment observed unique symptoms in those who witnessed or engaged in perceived unnecessary acts of violence. They identified the phenomenon as "moral injury". Moral injury results when there is an internal conflict resulting from a perceived transgression of a personal moral code and is evidenced by shame, guilt, and self-condemnation. DESCRIPTION: An exposure-based intervention called "adaptive disclosure" was developed at the National Center for PTSD. This is a six session cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting the unique manifestations of moral injury. The goal is to allow exploration of beliefs and assist the individual to reclaim their sense of self-worth. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: The same team developed the Moral Injury Events scale as tool to measure exposure to events in a military context that contradict deeply held moral beliefs. Clinicians can use the tool to inform treatment.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: It is important that psychiatric nurses therapists recognize manifestations of moral injury and examine their own attitudes toward morally transgressive acts carried out in the context of war. IMPLICATIONS: As the current military conflicts end, more returning servicemen will seek treatment. Nurse therapists in private practice as well as community clinics will encounter Veterans who are experiencing the inner conflicts related to moral injury.

 


 
 

2025: The Journey towards Competency Based Suicide Training for PMH Nurse Generalists
Cheryl A. Puntil, MN, APRN, PMHCNS, BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: Recently, the Journal of the American Psychiatric Association (JAPNA) published a white paper supporting the development of suicide specific competencies. This presentation will outline and discuss that journey from inception to completion, describe how APNA facilitated the process and how nurses, at all educational levels, participated. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. 90,000 psychiatric mental health (PMH) nurse generalists work in hospitals in the United States mostly on inpatient psychiatric units where the most acutely suicidal patients are hospitalized. DESCRIPTION: Although competencies have been developed for mental health clinicians in assessing and managing suicide risk, there are no standard competencies for PMH nurse generalists. Accepted nursing practices do not meet suicide-specific standards of care or evidence-based criteria. Quality and Safety Education for nurse competencies stress the necessity for comprehensive assessment, safe clinical practices, patient-centered care, evidence-based interventions, and interprofessional communication and collaboration, however there are no specific requirements for suicide prevention training in nursing educational and clinical programs. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Established suicide specific competencies will be compared to the final nurse specific competencies.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: In an effort to meet identified needs of PMH nurse generalists, the APNA education committee was charged with formulating a plan to address the learning needs specific to assessing and managing suicide risk. IMPLICATIONS: The development of competencies demonstrates how APNA facilitates member involvement and builds connections with PMH nurse generalists through education which will result in improved practice and better outcomes for hospitalized patients at risk for suicide.

 


 
 

2026: Building Connections in Borderline Personality Disorders for Improved Recovery Outcomes in an IMPACT Setting
Dale Knode, RN, BS, HSAD

Abstract
PURPOSE: Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder can be frustrating for practitioners. Their achievement of treatment goals is often slow or appears to be nonexistent. Treatment in recent years has focused on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy practice and techniques and this has been useful in providing practitioners with an service model with demonstrated outcomes. However, those outcomes are often times small steps forward in patient’s personal journey of recovery. Additional tools and treatment foci are needed to improve recovery speed and rates. This presentation identifies the healing role of stable interpersonal relationships both in and out of the therapy setting and how this environmental factor supplements and increases effectiveness of neo-traditional models of care. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: The use of DBT, CBT, and Interpersonal skills with assertive communications has positive outcomes with Borderline Personality Disorders. DESCRIPTION: IMPACT is a recovery program working with SPMI populations to improve outcomes in Mental Health. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Interviews with patients and rating how they are functioning.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: The emotional regulation of a population of a highly emotional mostly female clients. IMPLICATIONS: Improved outcomes in Borderline Personality Disorder population with therapy with assertive communication skills.

 


 
 

2027: Decreasing Seclusion and Increasing Restraint and Seclusion Documentation Compliance using LEAN Processes
Rick M. Wallace, MSN, RN; Jackie Williams-Porter, MBA, RN

Abstract
PURPOSE: To reduce the use of seclusion and increase documentation compliance to 100% SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Using LEAN methodology and building bridges with our stakeholders we reduced seclusion use by 50% without increasing staff or patient injury or hands on intervention. We continue to sustain that reduction. Concurrently we increased and sustained compliance in documentation to 100%. DESCRIPTION: Involving stakeholders to create standard work we established our current one best way process map that all nurses and staff can follow. Through standardization we minimized opportunity for error. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Six months of data showing a downward trend in seclusion by measuring seclusion by patient day. We have 6 months of data measuring compliance with restraint and seclusion documentation. We use a daily huddle format to monitor seclusion, restraint and documentation. We also monitor on monthly dashboards and report out to our executive leadership.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: The relevance to nursing has been huge. Most injury in our behavioral health setting occurs as a result of crisis needing hands on intervention. By reducing the amount of seclusion we are reducing the need to go hands on and so, avoid injury to both patients and staff. By standardizing our documentation we are eliminating the opportunity for error and increasing our compliance. IMPLICATIONS: Future implications will be great. We will be able to continue to focus on process improvement to reduce restraint and seclusion even more. We will be able to apply standard work to other process in the behavioral setting to increasingly minimize opportunities for error.

 


 
 

2028: Mindfulness Based Interventions: Mindful Integration in PMH Nursing Practice
Janice H. Goodman, PhD, PMHCNS-BC

Abstract
PURPOSE: This presentation will define and explore mindfulness, and its application in a number of evidence-based interventions, including Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), and others. A brief overview of such programs will be presented. Current research in the usefulness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for treatment of psychiatric illnesses will be summarized, including recent neuroscientific findings regarding the effects of mindfulness on brain structure and function. SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Mindfulness meditation as a means to improve quality of life and contend with stress, pain, illness, and mental health concerns, has seen an explosive proliferation in Western society over the past decade. As MBIs become more popular, it is important that PMH nurses understand the underlying theory, mechanisms, and evidence regarding efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for stress management and for specific psychiatric problems. DESCRIPTION: Mindfulness-based intervention programs provide systematic instruction in mindfulness meditation as a self-regulation approach to physical and emotional health and well-being. VALIDATION OF EVIDENCE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing anxiety, depression and stress in clinical and non-clinical populations.  RELEVANCE/OUTCOMES: Application of mindfulness-based interventions in PMH nursing practice will be discussed. The importance of personal mindfulness practice among professionals using mindfulness-based approaches will be emphasized. IMPLICATIONS: Resources for further information and training regarding MBIs will be offered.