LGBTQ Children and Adolescents

CDC's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Resources
A collection of resources for supporting LGBTQ youth build a foundation of mental wellness.

References from the 2017 APNA Child and Adolescent Interactive Panel: Sexual Orientation, Gender Development, and Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Care of LGBTQ Children & Adolescents

Adelson, S.L. (2012) Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 51 (9) 957-974. Retrieved from

Adelson, SL, and Schuster, MA “Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents” In: RM Kliegman, BF Stanton, J St. Geme & N Schor, (Eds.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 20th Edition (Philadelphia: Elsevier.)

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Ed 5. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing.

American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender-nonconforming people. American Psychologist, 70(9), 832-86.

Boylan, J.  (2013).  She’s not there—A life in two genders. NY, NY:  Broadway Paperbacks

Bonifacio, H. & Rosenthal, S.(2015). Gender variance and dysphoria in children and adolescents., 1001-1006.

 Brown, M. & Rounsley, C. (2003). True selves. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

de Vries et al.(2014). Young Adult Psychological Outcome After Puberty Suppression and Gender Reassignment. Pediatrics, 2014. 134(4): p. 1

 Drummond, Bradley, S., Peterson-Badali,M., K. & Zucker,K. (2008). A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder. Developmental Psychologist, 49(1), 34-45.

 Fine, C. (2010). Delusions of gender. NY<NY: Norton.

 Gates, Gary J.; Newport, Frank (October 18, 2012). "Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT". Gallup.

 Grossman, A.H and D’augelli, A R , Transgender Youth, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol.51, Iss.I, 2006

 Hembree, W.C. (2011). Guidelines for pubertal suspension and gender reassignment for transgender adolescents. Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clin N Am 20:725 -732.

Hembree,W.C., Cohen-Kettenis, PHenriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal, H.,,P.H,  Gooren,L.,Meyer, W,& Spack,N.,& Vin Tangpricha,V. &Montori, V.(2009).treatment of Transsexual persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. JClinical Endocrinology Metab, 94(9)3132-3154.

Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, and transgender people. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Landry, J. (2017).  Delivering culturally sensitive care to LGBTQ patients. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(5), 342-347.

Leibowitz, S, Adelson, S, and Telingator, C (2015). “Gender nonconformity and gender discordance in childhood and adolescence: Developmental considerations and the clinical approach. In H.J. Makadon, K.H.Mayer, J Potter, and H.Goldhammer (Eds). The Fenway guide to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health (2nd ed): Philadelphia; American College of Physicians.

 Leibowitz, S., Chen, D.. & Hidalgo, M. (2016).  Gender dysphoria and nonconformity. In M. Dulcan (Ed). Dulcan’s textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry, 585-202.Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Press.

Lim, f., Brown, d.& Jones, H.(2013).  Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health: Fundamentals for nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 198-203.

National Geographic (2017). Special issue: gender revolution, January, 2017.

Nutt, A. (2015). Becoming Nicole. The transformation of an American family. NY, NY: Random House.

 Olson KR, Durwood L, deMeules M, McLaughlin KA.(2016). Mental health of transgender children who are supported in their identities J Adolesc health, Pediatrics. 2016; 137(3), e2015-e2023.

 Reisner et al.(2015) Mental Health of Transgender Youth in Care at an Adolescent Urban Community Health Center: A Matched Retrospective Cohort Study. J Adolesc. Health, 2015. p. 1- 6.

Roberts AL, Rosario M, Slopen N, Calzo JP, Austin SB (2012). Childhood gender nonconformity, bullying victimization, and depressive symptoms across adolescence and early adulthood: An 11-year longitudinal study. J Am Acad Child Adolescent Psychiatry. Feb; 52(2):143-52.

Sherer, I, baum, J., Ehrensalt D.& Rosenthal, S.(2014) Affirming gender: Caring for gender-atypical children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 234(4), 696-704.

Simon, L., Liebowitz, S, & Hidalgo. (2014).  Understanding gender variance in children and adolescents. Pediatric Annals, 43(6), e126-e131.

 Smoyak, S.(2015). Young and old have new issues with being transgender. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services.53(7), 3 -5.

Steensma, Thomas D., et al. (2013). Factors associated with desistence study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 52.6: 582-590.

Steinmetz, K. (2017). Infinite identities, Time, March 27, 2017, 49-54.

Teich, N.  (2012). Transgender 101. NY, N:Y:. Columbia University Press.                                                                                                     .,

Tishelman, A., Kaufman, R., Edwards-Leaper, L., Mandel, F., & Spack, N. (2015). Serving transgender youth: Challenges, dilemmas, and clinical examples. ProfpsychResPr, 46(1), 37-45.

 Wallien, MSC & Cohen-37-45.

World Professional Association for Transgender Health. (2012). Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People (Version 7). Minneapolis, MN: Author.

 Zucker KJ, Lawrence AA. (2009). Epidemiology of gender identity dis-order: Recommendations for the standards of care of the World. Professional Association for Transgender Health. Int J. Transgenderism, 11(8), 1-18.

Zucker, K. J., & Wood, H. (2011). Assessment of gender variance in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 20(4), 665-680.

Zuzelo, P. (2013). Improving nursing care for lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women. Journal of Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing. 43(40, 520-530.


Web Resources

 Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Gender and Sexuality Development Clinic:

Children’s National Hospital Gender and Sexuality Psychosocial Programs, under the direction of Dr. Edgardo Menvielle, Washington DC:
(search: Gender)

Family Acceptance Project: for GLBT, diverse families at risk for suicide, DV, mental health issues, homelessness:

Fenway Health Institute, The National LGBT Health Education Center, Boston, Mass:

Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Education Network (GLSEN):

GeMS (Gender Management Service, Boston Children’s Hospital): medical and mental health care, consultation and referral for gender non-conforming youth. (617.355.7476)

Gender Spectrum Education & Training:

International Foundation for Gender Education:

Parents, Families & Friends of Lesbians &Gay (PFLAG):

The Trevor Project: suicide prevention for sexual and gender minority youth:

World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH):


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