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Telemental Health: Education

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This section includes information about the use of telemental health for clinical nursing education, including recommendations for implementing teleprecepting in nurse practitioner education. It also addresses simulation as a tool for clinical education and psychiatric-mental health nursing formative and summative assessment. Frameworks and competencies for telehealth education are also addressed.

Precepting/Tele-precepting Nurse Practitioner Students

Telehealth Competencies & Frameworks

Telehealth competencies ensure that graduates of basic and advanced nursing programs possess the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are needed to deliver safe and effective telehealth care.

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  • Chike-Harris, K. E., Durham, C., Logan, A., Smith, G., & DuBose-Morris, R. (2020). Integration of telehealth education into the health care provider curriculum: A review. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 0(0). doi: 10.1089/tmj.2019.0261 Retrieved from:
  • Cornelis T.M. van Houwelingen, Anna H. Moerman, Roelof G.A. Ettema, Helianthe S.M. Kort, Olle ten Cate. (2016). Competencies required for nursing telehealth activities: A Delphi-study. Nurse Education Today, Volume 39, Pages 50-62.
  • Gustin, T. S., Kott, K., & Rutledge, C. (2019). Telehealth etiquette training: A guideline for preparing interprofessional teams for successful encounters. Nurse Educator, 45(2), 88-92 doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000680 Retrieved from:
  • Rutledge, C.M., Kott, K., Schweickert, P.A., Poston, R., Fowler, C., & Haney, T.S. (2017). Telehealth and eHealth in nurse practitioner training: Current perspectives. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 8, 399-409. doi: 10.2147/AMEP.S116071 Retrieved from:

Professional Organizations' Positions

Professional organizations have articulated positions on the development and refinement of telehealth competencies in basic and advanced nursing education.

Defining Telehealth Competencies

Well-defined telehealth competencies should align with a comprehensive telehealth framework to guide the development, application, and evaluation of telehealth competencies for nursing education and practice.

Rutledge, C. M., O’Rourke, J., Mason, A. M., Chike-Harris, K., Behnke, L., Melhado, L., Downes, L., & Gustin, T. (2021). Telehealth Competencies for Nursing Education and Practice: The Four P’s of Telehealth. Nurse educator, 46(5), 300–305.

Rutledge, C., Hawkins, E. J., Bordelon, M., & Gustin, T. S. (2020). Telehealth Education: An Interprofessional Online Immersion Experience in Response to COVID-19. The Journal of nursing education, 59(10), 570–576.

Reliable and valid tools should be used to measure mastery of telehealth competencies:

  • Confidence in Planning for Telehealth Scale
  • Telehealth Etiquette Knowledge Scale
  • Confidence in Providing Telehealth Scale

All tools retrieved from


Telehealth simulation enables students to practice complex skills in a low-stakes environment as well as provide faculty with a method to assess and evaluate telemental health competencies.

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For Graduate Students